Literature & Abstracts

The interest in endoscopic spine surgery is also reflected by the increasing number of publications. Innovative full-endoscopic procedures offer treatment solutions with gentle access to the spinal canal for a wide range of spinal pathologies. Clear advantages and the overall success of endoscopic surgical procedures are proven in clinical studies. The results suggest that endoscopic spinal surgery is increasingly regarded as the “gold standard”. The access to evidence-based publications is an integral part of the ESPINEA® training program.

Literature & Abstracts

Most frequent questions and answers

Barber SM et al. Outcomes of endoscopic discectomy compared with open microdiscectomy and tubular microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniations: a meta-analysis. JNS Spine 2019

Tacconi L et al. Endoscopic Approach Technique for Recurrent Lumbar Prolapsed Disc. NeuroQuantology 17.5 (2019).
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Hasan S et al. The benefit zone of full-endoscopic spine surgery. JSS 5.Suppl 1 (2019): S41. Full-text >

Kapetanakis S et al.Percutaneous endoscopic ventral facetectomy: An innovative substitute of open decompression surgery for lateral recess stenosis surgical treatment? Journal of Craniovertebral Junction & Spine 9.3 (2018): 188. Full-text >

Kapetanakis S et al. Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation in obese patients: Health-related quality of life assessment in a 2-year follow-up. World Neurosurgery 113 (2018): e638-e649. Abstract >

Kapetanakis S et al. The Role of Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Surgery in Lateral Recess Stenosis in Elderly Patients. Asian Spine Journal (2019). Full-text >

Gkasdaris G et al. CT Assessment of the in vivo Osseous Lumbar Intervertebral Foramen: a Radiologic Study with Clinical Applications. Maedica 13.4 (2018): 294. Full-text >

Kapetanakis S et al. The Role of Full-Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy in Surgical Treatment of Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Health-Related Quality of Life Approach. Neurospine 16.1 (2019): 96. Full-text >

Telfeian AE et al. Prognosis for Recovery of Foot Drop after Transforaminal Endoscopic Decompression of Far Lateral Lumbar 5-Sacral 1 Herniated Disc: Case Series. Pain Physician, 2019; 22:E97-E103. Full-text >

McGrath LB et al. Comparison of clinical outcomes following minimally invasive or lumbar endoscopic unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine 1.aop (2019): 1-9.

Lee CW and Yoon KJ. The Usefulness of Percutaneous Endoscopic Technique in Multifocal Lumbar Pathology. BioMed Research International 2019. Full-text >

Yoon JW and Wang MY The evolution of minimally invasive spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 30:149–158, 2019 Full-text >

Telfeian AE et al. An awake, minimally-invasive, fully-endoscopic surgical technique for treating lumbar radiculopathy secondary to heterotopic foraminal bone formation after a minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with BMP. Journal of Spine Surgery 4.1 (2018): 162. Full-text >

Wan Q et al. Posterior percutaneous full-endoscopic cervical discectomy under local anesthesia for cervical radiculopathy due to soft-disc herniation: a preliminary clinical study. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine (2018).  Full-text >

Shen J et al. Fully Endoscopic Lumbar Laminectomy for Treatment of Large Dorsal Ligamentum Flavum Cyst and Severe Spinal Stenosis: A Technical note on a Case Report. Journal of Spine 2018

Shen J et al. Fully Endoscopic Bilateral Cervical Laminotomy with Unilateral Approach for Cervical Spinal Stenosis and Myelopathy: A Case Series. Journal of Spine 2018

Shen J et al. Fully Endoscopic Transforaminal Discectomy under Local Anesthesia for Thoracic Disc Herniations: A Case Series. Journal of Spine 2018

Tao XZ et al. Therapeutic effect of transforaminal endoscopic spine system in the treatment of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 22.1 Suppl (2018): 103-110. Full-text >

Wagner R et al. Fully-endoscopic lumbar laminectomy for central and lateral recess stenosis. Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery 13 (2018): 6-9. Full-text >

Adsul N et al. Acute Bilateral Isolated Foot Drop: Changing the Paradigm in Management of Degenerative Spine Surgery with Percutaneous Endoscopy. World Neurosurgery 110 (2018): 319-322.

Lee CW et al. Percutaneous Endoscopic Laminotomy with Flavectomy by Uniportal, Unilateral Approach for the Lumbar Canal or Lateral Recess Stenosis. World Neurosurgery 113 (2018): e129-e137.

Wagner R et al. Endoscopic Surgical Technique for Treating Sacral Radiculopathy Secondary to S1 Nerve Compression After Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion. World Neurosurgery 119 (2018): 349-352.

Shen J. Fully Endoscopic Lumbar Laminectomy for Treatment of Large Dorsal Ligamentum Flavum Cyst and Severe Spinal Stenosis: A Technical note on a Case Report. J Spine (2018) S7: 011.

Kim HS et al. Suprapedicular Circumferential Opening Technique of Percutaneous Endoscopic Transforaminal Lumbar Discectomy for High Grade Inferiorly Migrated Lumbar Disc Herniation. BioMed Research International 2018.

Wang H et al. Effect of percutaneous transforaminal lumbar spine endoscopic discectomy on lumbar disc herniation and its influence on indexes of oxidative stress. Biomedical Research 2017; 28 (21): 9464-9469.

Gibson JNA et al. A randomised controlled trial of transforaminal endoscopic discectomy vs microdiscectomy. European Spine Journal 26.3 (2017): 847-856.

Telfeian AE et al. Transforaminal Endoscopic Surgery for Adjacent Segment Disease After Lumbar Fusion. World neurosurgery 97 (2017): 231-235.

Kapetanakis S et al. Health-related quality of life after transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy: An analysis according to the level of operation. Journal of craniovertebral junction & spine 8.1 (2017): 44.

Krzok G et al. Contralateral facet-sparing sublaminar endoscopic foraminotomy for the treatment of lumbar lateral recess stenosis. Journal of Spine Surgery 3.2 (2017): 260.

Wagner R et al. Transforaminal Endoscopic Decompression for a Displaced Endplate Fracture after Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion. World Neurosurgery 97 (2017): 231-235.

Telfeian AE, Iprenburg M, Wagner R. Endoscopic Spine Surgery: Distance Patients Will Travel for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Pain Physician 20.1 (2017): E145-E149.

Gibson JNA et al. A randomised controlled trial of transforaminal endoscopic discectomy vs microdiscectomy. European Spine Journal 26.3 (2017): 847-856.

Ren C. et al. Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation Causing Bilateral Symptoms World Neurosurg. (2017) 106:413-421

Wagner R et al. A minimally-invasive fully-endoscopic 2-level posterior cervical foraminotomy. Journal of Spine Surgery 3.2 (2017): 238.

Middleton SD, Wagner R, Gibson JNA. Multi-level spine endoscopy: A review of available evidence and case report. EFORT open reviews 2.7 (2017): 317-323.

Kim HS et al. Early Outcomes of Endoscopic Contralateral Foraminal and Lateral Recess Decompression via an Interlaminar Approach in Patients with Unilateral Radiculopathy from Unilateral Foraminal Stenosis. World Neurosurgery 108 (2017): 763-773.

Kim HS et al. Percutaneous Full Endoscopic Bilateral Lumbar Decompression of Spinal Stenosis Through Uniportal-Contralateral Approach: Techniques and Preliminary Results. World Neurosurgery 103 (2017): 201-209.

Kim HS et al. Analysis of clinical results of three different routes of percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal lumbar discectomy for lumbar herniated disk. World Neurosurgery 103 (2017): 442-448.

Pan Z et al. Efficacy of Transforaminal Endoscopic Spine System (TESSYS) technique in treating lumbar disc herniation. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 22 (2016): 530.

Krzok G et al. Transpedicular lumbar endoscopic surgery for highly migrated disk extrusions: preliminary series and surgical technique. World Neurosurgery 95 (2016): 299-303.

Wagner R, Telfeian AE, Iprenburg M et al et al. Transforaminal endoscopic foraminoplasty and discectomy for the treatment of a thoracic disc herniation.” World Neurosurgery 90 (2016): 194-198.

Wagner R, Telfeian AE, Iprenburg M et al et al. Transforaminal endoscopic solution to a kyphoplasty complication. World Neurosurgery 91 (2016): 195-198.

Dabo X et al. The Clinical Results of Percutaneous Endoscopic Interlaminar Discectomy (PEID) in the Treatment of Calcified Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Case-Control Study. Pain Physician 2016 Feb;19(2):69-76.

Lee JS et al. Structural Preservation Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Interlaminar Discectomy for L5-S1 Herniated Nucleus Pulposus. BioMed Research International 2016.

Li ZZ et al. The strategy and early clinical outcome of full-endoscopic L5/S1 discectomy through interlaminar approach. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 133 (2015): 40-45.

Komp M et al. Bilateral spinal decompression of lumbar central stenosis with the full-endoscopic interlaminar versus microsurgical laminotomy technique: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Pain Physician 18.1 (2015): 61-70.

Markovic M Full-endoscopic interlaminar operations in lumbar compressive lesions surgery: prospective study of 350 patients. „Endos“ study. . J Neurosurg Sci. 2016.

Nie H et al. Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy for L5–S1 Disc Herniation Via an Interlaminar Approach Versus a Transforaminal Approach: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study With 2-Year Follow Up. Spine 41 (2016): B30-B37.

Gibson et al. Spine surgery approach size does matter. Nature Reviews Neurology 8.10 (2012): 588.

Kim CH et al. Endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy with splitting of the ligament fl avum under vidual control Clinical Spine Surgery 25.4 (2012): 210-217.

Kim CH, Chung CK (2011) Endoscopic Interlaminar Lumbar Discectomy With Splitting of the Ligament Flavum Under Visual Control. Clinical Spine Surgery 25.4 (2012): 210-217.

Chen HT et al. Endoscopic discectomy of L5-S1 disc herniation via an interlaminar approach: Prospective controlled study under local and general anesthesia.” Surgical neurology international 2 (2011).

Wang B et al. An evaluation of the learning curve for a complex surgical technique: the full endoscopic interlaminar approach for lumbar disc herniations. The Spine Journal 11.2 (2011): 122-130.

Kolcun JPG et al. Endoscopic transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion without general anesthesia: technical innovations and outcomes. Annals of Translational Medicine (2019). Full-text >

Hockley A et al. Minimally Invasive Versus Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery: An Analysis of Opioids, Nonopioid Analgesics, and Perioperative Characteristics. Global Spine Journal (2019): 2192568218822320.

Gibson JNA et al. Enhanced Recovery Following Interbody Fusion by Transforaminal Endoscopic Techniques. P305 GSJ 9(2S) 2019.  Full-text >

Wu Jet al. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion: technical note and preliminary clinical experience with 2-year follow-up. BioMed Research International 2018. Full-text >

Shen J. Fully-endoscopic lumbar laminectomy and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion under local anesthesia/conscious sedation: a case series. World Neurosurgery (2019). Abstract >

Wang MY et al. Reduced Acute Care Costs With the ERAS® Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Compared With Conventional Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion. Neurosurgery (2018). Abstract > 

Sembrano JN et al. Two-year comparative outcomes of MIS lateral and MIS transforaminal interbody fusion in the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis: part I: clinical findings. Spine 41 (2016): S123-S132.

Goldstein CL et al. Comparative effectiveness and economic evaluations of open versus minimally invasive posterior or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Spine 41.1 (2016): S74-S89.

Isaacs RE et al. Two-Year Comparative Outcomes of MIS Lateral and MIS Transforaminal Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. Spine 41.1 (2016): S133-S144.

Hardenbrook M, Telfeian AE et al. The anatomic rationale for transforaminal endoscopic interbody fusion: a cadaveric analysis. Neurosurgical focus 40.2 (2016): E12

Wang,MY et al Endoscopic minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion without general anesthesia: initial clinical experience with 1-year follow-up. Neurosurgical focus 40.2 (2016): E13.

Sclafani JA et al. Validation and Analysis of a Multi-site MIS Prospective Registry Through Sub-analysis of an MIS TLIF Subgroup. Int J Spine Surg. 2014 Dec 1;8

Nemoto O et al. Comparison of fusion rates following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using polyetheretherketone cages or titanium cages with transpedicular instrumentation. Eur Spine J (2014) 23:2150–2155

Seng C et al. Five-year outcomes of minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a matched-pair comparison study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Nov 1;38(23):2049-55

Ibrahim R et al. Endoscopic Radiofrequency Treatment of the Sacroiliac Joint Complex for Low Back Pain: A Prospective Study with a 2-Year Follow-Up. Pain Physician 22 (2019): E111-E118. Full-text:

Kim HS et al.Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Radiofrequency Ablation of the Sinuvertebral Nerve in an Olympian with a Left L5 Pedicle/Pars Interarticularis Fracture–Associated Left L5-S1 Disk Desiccation. World Neurosurgery: X 3 (2019): 100032. Abstract:

Zentz F et al. Die endoskopische Operationstechnik minimiert die postoperative Atrophie der autochthonen Rückenmuskulatur. P36 DWG 2018

Zentz F et al. Endoscopical approaches reduce postoperative atrophy of lumbar spine muscles. P36 DWG Eur Spine J 2018

Palea O et al. Direct Posterior Bipolar Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Rhizotomy: A Simpler and Safer Approach to Denervate the Facet Capsule. Cureus 10.3 (2018). Full-text:

Jo H et al. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Back Pain. Journal of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery and Technique 2.1 (2017): 7-14.

Choi WS et al. Endoscopic Radiofrequency Ablation of the Sacroiliac Joint Complex in the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility and Efficacy of a Novel Technique. BioMed Research International 2016 (2016). Full-text:

D’Orazio F et al. Spine epidural and sacroiliac joints injections–when and how to perform. European Journal of Radiology 84.5 (2015): 777-782.

Li ZZ et al. Evaluation of endoscopic dorsal ramus rhizotomy in managing facetogenic chronic low back pain. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 126 (2014): 11-17.

Jeong SY et al. The effectiveness of endoscopic radiofrequency denervation of medial branch for treatment of chronic low back pain. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 56.4 (2014): 338

Yeung A et al. Endoscopically guided foraminal and dorsal rhizotomy for chronic axial back pain based on cadaver and endoscopically visualized anatomic study. International Journal of Spine Surgery 8 (2014): 23.

Fortin J et al. The anatomy of the lateral branches of the sacral dorsal rami: implications for radiofrequency ablation. Pain Physician 17 (2014): 459-464.

Igressa A et al. Minimal Invasive Endoscopic Rhizotomy: a new Treatment for Lumbar Facet Syndrome – Technique and Clinical Experience. Poster 096, IV WCMISST Paris 2014.

Igressa A et al. Endoskopische Rhizotomie bei lumbalem Facettengelenkssyndrom – erste Ergebnisse. P61, DWG 2013

Siddiqi F et al. Five Year Long-Term Results of Endoscopic Dorsal Ramus Rhizotomy and Anatomic Variations of the Painful Lumbar Facet Joint. Oral Presentation, Las Vegas, SMISS 2013

Vleeming A et al. The sacroiliac joint: an overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications. Journal of anatomy 221.6 (2012): 537-567.

DePalma MJ et al. Etiology of chronic low back pain in patients having undergone lumbar fusion. Pain Medicine 12.5 (2011): 732-739.

DePalma MJ. What is the source of chronic low back pain and does age play a role? Pain medicine 12.2 (2011): 224-233.

Aydin SM et al. The role of radiofrequency ablation for sacroiliac joint pain: a meta-analysis. PM&R 2.9 (2010): 842-851.

Scott MW et al. Endoscopic Facet Debridement for the treatment of facet arthritic pain – a novel new technique. Int J Med Sci 2010; 7(3):120-123

Haufe SMW and Mork AR. Endoscopic Facet Debridement for the treatment of facet arthritic pain – a novel new technique. Int J Med Sci 2010.

Malham GM and Wells-Quinn T. What should my hospital buy next?—Guidelines for the acquisition and application of imaging, navigation, and robotics for spine surgery. Journal of Spine Surgery 5.1 (2019): 155. Full-text:

Drazin D et al. Highlights from the First Annual Spinal Navigation, Emerging Technologies and Systems Integration Meeting. Annals of translational medicine 6.6 (2018). Full-text:

Zhang Y et al. Minimally Invasive Computer Navigation-Assisted Endoscopic Transforaminal Interbody Fusion with Bilateral Decompression via a Unilateral Approach: Initial Clinical Experience at One-Year Follow-Up. World Neurosurgery (2017). Abstract:

Fan Get al. Isocentric navigation of percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy at the L5/S1 level in difficult puncture cases: a technical note. Pain Physician 20 (2017): E531-E540.

Fan Get al. Navigation improves the learning curve of transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy. International Orthopaedics (SICOT) (2017) 41: 323.

Dea N et al. Economic evaluation comparing intraoperative cone beam CT-based navigation and conventional fluoroscopy for the placement of spinal pedicle screws: a patient-level data cost-effectiveness analysis. The Spine Journal (2016), Volume 16 , Issue 1 , 23 – 31

Wang MY et al. Navigation for Spinal Surgery: Why Hasn’t It Become the Accepted Standard? World Neurosurgery 79.1 (2013): 87.

Waschke A et al. CT-navigation versus fluoroscopy-guided placement of pedicle screws at the thoracolumbar spine: single center experience of 4,500 screws. Eur Spine J 22.3 (2013): 654-660. (Abstract)

Heintel TM et al. Accuracy of percutaneous pedicle screws for thoracic and lumbar spine fractures: a prospective trial. Eur Spine J 22.3 (2013): 495-502. (Abstract)

Härtl R et al. Worldwide Survey on the Use of Navigation in Spine Surgery. World Neurosurgery (2013), Volume 79, Issue 1 , 162 – 172

Choi KC et al. Cost-effectiveness of microdiscectomy versus endoscopic discectomy for lumbar disc herniation. The Spine Journal (2019). Abstract:

Yoon JW and Wang MY The evolution of minimally invasive spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 30:149–158, 2019

Wang D et al. A Cost-Utility Analysis of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy for L5-S1 Lumbar Disc Herniation: Transforaminal vs Interlaminar. Spine (2018). Abstract.

Zeng J et al. Complications of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy via Interlaminar Approach, abstract 590, ISASS 2018.

Mueller SJ et al. Management of Dural Tears in Endoscopic Lumbar Spinal Surgery–A review of the Literature. World Neurosurgery (2018). Abstract:

Chotai S et al. Effect of Complications within 90 Days on Cost Per Quality-Adjusted Life Year Gained Following Elective Surgery for Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease. Neurosurgery 64.CN_suppl_1 (2017): 157-164. Full-text:

Zeng Y et al. Novel targeted puncture technique for percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy reduces X-ray exposure. Experimental and Therapeutic medicine 14.4 (2017): 2960-2968.

Gibson JNA et al. A randomised controlled trial of transforaminal endoscopic discectomy vs microdiscectomy. European Spine Journal 26.3 (2017): 847-856.

Scott CEH et al. A Cost Utility RCT Comparison of Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy and Microdiscectomy. Poster SMISS 2013

Wisløff T et al. Estimating QALY gains in applied studies: a review of cost-utility analyses published in 2010. Pharmacoeconomics 32.4 (2014): 367-375.

Glassman SD et al. The cost effectiveness of single-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion at 5 years after surgery. Spine 37.9 (2012): 769-774.

Lipscomb J et al. Retaining, and enhancing, the QALY. Value in Health 12 (2009): S18-S26.

Ruetten S et al. Full-endoscopic interlaminar and transforaminal lumbar discectomy versus conventional microsurgical technique: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Spine 2008;33:931–9.

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